1. Glasgow Coma Scale

    Glasgow Coma Scale

    Eye OpeningE
    to speech3
    to pain2
    no response1
    Best Motor ResponseM
    To Verbal Command:
    To Painful Stimulus:
    localizes pain5
    no response1
    Best Verbal ResponseV
    oriented and converses5
    disoriented and converses4
    inappropriate words3
    incomprehensible sounds2
    no response1

    E + M + V = 3 to 15

    • 90% less than or equal to 8 are in coma
    • Greater than or equal to 9 not in coma
    • 8 is the critical score
    • Less than or equal to 8 at 6 hours - 50% die
    • 9-11 = moderate severity
    • Greater than or equal to 12 = minor injury

    Coma is defined as: (1) not opening eyes, (2) not obeying commands, and (3) not uttering understandable words.

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  2. Recycle

    Recycling symbols can be further divided into two separate categories.
    1. 'Recyclable' symbols marking products made from specific materials that are suitable for recycling depending on whether there is a collection mechanism in place within the local community for those particular materials.
    2. 'Recycled' symbols designating products containing recycled materials.

    'Recycled' symbol for paperboard

    'Recyclable' symbol for glass

    'Recyclable' symbol for corrugated

    'Recyclable' symbols for plastic
    bottles, containers and packaging

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE or PET)


    Properties: toughness, strength, heat resistance, barrier to moisture and gas. Density: 1.35-1.38 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 PET accounted for 48% of plastic bottle resin sales, making it the most widely used resin in plastic bottles

    Description: PET, also referred to as polyester, is a popular packaging material for food and non-food products because it is inexpensive, lightweight, resealable, shatter-resistant and recyclable. PET is clear and has good moisture and gas barrier properties. Its color may be green. The flakes and pellets of cleaned postconsumer recycled PET are in heavy demand for use in spinning carpet yarns and for producing fiberfill and geotextiles.

    Packaging applications: Soft drink bottles, water bottles, beer bottles, mouthwash bottles, peanut butter containers, salad dressing containers, juice bottles, vegetable oil bottles

    Recycled products: Fiber, tote bags, new PETE containers for both food and non-food products, fabric for clothing, athletic shoes, luggage, upholstery, furniture, carpet, fiberfill for sleeping bags and winter coats, industrial strapping, sheet, and film, and automotive parts, such as luggage racks, headliners, fuse boxes, bumpers, grilles and door panels

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


    Properties: toughness, strength, stiffness, ease of forming, ease of processing, resistance to moisture and chemicals, permeability to gas. Density: 0.94-0.96 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 HDPE accounted for 47% of plastic bottle resin sales, making it the second most widely used resin in plastic bottles. HDPE and PETE together accounted for 95% of plastic bottle resin usage

    Description: Bottles made from HDPE come in both pigmented and unpigmented resins. The unpigmented resin is translucent. It also has good stiffness and barrier properties. Thus, it is ideal for packaging products having a short shelf-life such as milk. HDPE's good chemical resistance allows it to be used in containers holding household or inductrial chemicals. The pigmented resin has even better crack resistance and chemical resistance than the unpigmented resin.

    Packaging applications: Milk containers, juice bottles, water bottles, bleach, detergent, and shampoo bottles, trash bags, grocery and retail carrying bags, motor oil bottles, butter and margarine tubs, household cleaner bottles, yogurt containers, and cereal box liners

    Recycled products: Drainage pipe, liquid laundry detergent bottles, oil bottles, pens, benches, doghouses, recycling containers, floor tile, picnic tables, fencing, lumber, and mailbox posts

    Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, sometimes V)


    Properties: toughness, strength, ease of blending, ease of processing, resistance to grease, oil, and chemicals, clarity. Density: 1.32-1.42 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 PVC accounted for 2% of plastic bottle resin sales.

    Description: Vinyl, or polyvinylchloride, has stable electrical and physical properties. It has excellent chemical resistance and good weatherability. Its flow characteristics make it well-suited for injection molding.

    Packaging applications: Window cleaner bottles, cooking oil bottles, detergent bottles, shampoo bottles, clear food packaging, wire and cable jacketing, medical tubing, with additional significant usage in household products and building materials, particularly siding, piping, and windows

    Recycled products: Binders, decking, paneling, mudflaps, roadway gutters, flooring, cables, speed bumps, and mats

    Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)


    ( - CH2 - CH2 - )n
    Properties: toughness, strength, flexibility, ease of sealing, ease of processing, barrier to moisture. Density: 0.91-0.93 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 LDPE accounted for just 1% of plastic bottle resin sales.

    Description: Because of its toughness , flexibility, and transparency, LDPE is commonly used in applications where heat sealing is necessary. It is also widely used in wire and cable insulation and jacketing.

    Packaging applications: Squeezable bottles, breadbags, frozen food bags, tote bags, clothing, furniture, dry cleaning bags, and carpet

    Recycled products: Film and sheet, loor tile, garbage can liners, shipping envelopes, furniture, compost bins, paneling, trash cans, lumber, landscaping ties

    Polypropylene (PP)



    Properties: toughness, strength, resistance to heat, grease, oil, and chemicals, barrier to moisture. Density: 0.90-0.92 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 PP accounted for 2% of plastic bottle resin sales.

    Description: Polypropylene has the lowest density of the resins used in packaging. It is strong and is resistant to chemicals. Since it has a high melting-point it can be utilized in applications requiring that a container be filled with a hot liquid.

    Packaging applications: Yogurt containers, syrup bottles, ketchup bottles, caps, straws, medicine bottles

    Recycled products: Signal lights, battery cables, brooms, brushes, auto battery cases, ice scrapers, landscape borders, bicycle racks, rakes, bins, pallets, and trays

    Polystyrene (PS)


    Properties: ease of forming, clarity, low heat transfer, good thermal insulation. Density: 1.03-1.06 g/cc

    Statistic: In 1999 PS usage as a plastic bottle resin was essentially nil.

    Description: Polystyrene can be made into rigid or foamed products. It has a relatively low melting point.

    Packaging applications: Plates, cups, cutlery, meat trays, egg cartons, carry-out containers, aspirin bottles, compact disc jackets

    Recycled products: Thermal insulation, light switch plates, egg cartons, vents, rulers, foam packing, carry-out containers


    Properties: varies according to constituent resins

    Statistic: In 1999 there was minimal usage of resins in the 'other' category in plastic bottles.

    Description: The category of "Other" includes any resin not specifically numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, or combinations of one or more of these resins.

    Packaging applications: Three and five gallon water bottles, certain food product bottles

    Recycled products: Plastic lumber, custom-made products

    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

    Properties: resilient, low density, rigid, impervious

    Description: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was not part of the original resin identification system.

    Applications: Pipes, car bumpers, toy building blocks, golf club heads, enclosures


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  3. Saintis temui tempat kawal perasaan cemburu

    GAMBAR dalam bulatan menunjukkan kawasan yang
    mengawal perasaan cemburu dalam otak manusia.

    NEW YORK - Sekumpulan saintis menemui kawasan dalam otak yang mengawal perasaan cemburu, lapor sebuah akhbar semalam.

    Kedudukan tempat yang mengawal perasaan cemburu itu berada dalam kawasan yang mengesan kesakitan fizikal.

    Menurut saintis, penemuan itu merungkai persoalan kenapa perasaan cemburu seorang kekasih menyebabkan anda berasa 'terluka' yang amat sangat.

    "Adalah amat menarik kerana bahagian yang mengesan kesakitan fizikal turut mempunyai kaitan dengan kesakitan mental," kata ketua penyelidik itu, Hidehiko Takahashi.

    "Melakukan penilaian terhadap perasaan cemburu mungkin membantu penjagaan mental seperti mendapatkan kaunseling," tambahnya.

    Menurut pakar psikologi dari Universiti Kentucky, Profesor Richard Smith, cemburu boleh menjejaskan kehidupan seseorang.

    "Jika anda ialah seorang yang cemburu, anda sukar untuk menghargai perkara yang baik kerana anda terlalu bimbang berhubung cara orang lain akan memberi reaksi," katanya. - Agensi

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    The first patent for a refillable pencil with lead-propelling mechanism was issued to Sampson Mordan and John Isaac Hawkins in Britain in 1822. After buying out Hawkins' patent rights, Mordan entered into a business partnership with Gabriel Riddle from 1823 to 1837. The earliest Mordan pencils are thus hallmarked SMGR. [1][2] After 1837, Sampson Mordan ended the partnership with Riddle and continued to manufacture pencils as "S.MORDAN & CO". His company continued to manufacture pencils and a wide range of silver objects until World War II, when the factory was bombed.

    Between 1822 to 1874, more than 160 patents were registered pertaining to a variety of improvements to mechanical pencils. The first spring-loaded mechanical pencil was patented in 1877 and a twist-feed mechanism was developed in 1895. The 0.9 mm lead was introduced in 1938, and later it was followed by 0.7, 0.5, 0.3. Even a 1.4 mm mechanism was available, and 0.4 and 0.2 versions are now produced.

    At nearly the same time, in America, Charles R. Keeran was developing a similar pencil that would be the precursor of most of today's pencils. Keeran's design was ratchet-based, whereas Hayakawa's was screw-based. These two development histories are often combined into one.The mechanical pencil became successful in
    Japan with some improvements in 1915 by Tokuji Hayakawa, a metal worker who had just finished his apprenticeship. It was introduced as the Ever-Ready Sharp Pencil. Success was not immediate, since the metal shaft—essential for the pencil's long life—was unfamiliar to users. The Ever-Sharp began selling in huge numbers, however, after a company from Yokohama made a large order. Later Tokuji Hayakawa's company got its name from that pencil: Sharp.

    At nearly the same time, in America, Charles R. Keeran was developing a similar pencil that would be the precursor of most of today's pencils. Keeran's design was ratchet-based, whereas Hayakawa's was screw-based. These two development histories are often combined into one.
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    The toothbrush as we know it today was not invented until 1938. However, early forms of the toothbrush have been in existence since 3000 BC. Ancient civilizations used a "chew stick," which was a thin twig with a frayed end. These 'chew sticks' were rubbed against the teeth.

    The bristle toothbrush, similar to the type used today, was not invented until 1498 in China. The bristles were actually the stiff, coarse hairs taken from the back of a hog's neck and attached to handles made of bone or bamboo.

    Boar bristles were used until 1938, when nylon bristles were introduced by Dupont de Nemours. The first nylon toothbrush was called Doctor West's Miracle Toothbrush. Later, Americans were influenced by the disciplined hygiene habits of soldiers from World War II. They became increasingly concerned with the practice of good oral hygiene and quickly adopted the nylon toothbrush.

    The first mass-produced toothbrush was made by William Addis of Clerkenwald, England, around 1780.
    The first American to patent a toothbrush was H. N. Wadsworth, (patent number 18,653,) on Nov. 7, 1857.
    Mass production of toothbrushes began in America around 1885.
    One of the first electric toothbrushes to hit the American market was in 1960. It
    was marketed by the Squibb company under the name Broxodent
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  6. 15 Beautiful Microscopic Images from Inside the Human Body

    Coloured image of a 6 day old human embryo implanting
    And the cycle of life begins again: this 6 day old human embryo is beginning to implant into the endometrium, the lining of the uterus.

    Sperm on the surface of a human egg
    Here’s a close-up of a number of sperm trying to fertilise an egg.

    Human embryo and sperm
    It looks like the world at war, but it’s actually five days after the fertilisation of an egg, with some remaining sperm cells still sticking around. This fluorescent image was captured using a confocal microscope. The embryo and sperm cell nuclei are stained purple while sperm tails are green. The blue areas are gap junctions, which form connections between the cells.

    Human egg with coronal cells
    This image is of a purple, colour-enhanced human egg sitting on a pin. The egg is coated with the zona pellicuda, a glycoprotein that protects the egg but also helps to trap and bind sperm. Two coronal cells are attached to the zona pellicuda.

    Villi of small intestine
    Villi in the small intestine increase the surface area of the gut, which helps in the absorption of food. Look closely and you’ll see some food stuck in one of the crevices.

    Lung cancer cells
    This image of warped lung cancer cells is in stark contrast to the healthy lung

    Blood clot
    Remember that picture of the nice, uniform shapes of red blood cells you just looked at? Well, here’s what it looks like when those same cells get caught up in the sticky web of a blood clot. The cell in the middle is a white blood cell

    Alveoli in the lung
    This is what a colour-enhanced image of the inner surface of your lung looks like. The hollow cavities are alveoli; this is where gas exchange occurs with the blood.

    Tooth plaque
    Brush your teeth often because this is what the surface of a tooth with a form of “corn-on-the-cob” plaque looks like.

    Tongue with taste bud
    This colour-enhanced image depicts a taste bud on the tongue. The human tongue has about 10,000 taste buds that are involved with detecting salty, sour, bitter, sweet and savoury taste perceptions

    Blood vessels emerging from the optic nerve
    In this image, stained retinal blood vessels are shown to emerge from the black-coloured optic disc. The optic disc is a blind spot because no light receptor cells are present in this area of the retina where the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels leave the back of the eye.

    Purkinje neurons
    Of the 100 billion neurons in your brain, Purkinje neurons are some of the largest. Among other things, these cells are the masters of motor coordination in the cerebellar cortex. Toxic exposure such as alcohol and lithium, autoimmune diseases, genetic mutations including autism and neurodegenerative diseases can negatively affect human Purkinje cells.

    Hair cell in the ear
    Here’s what it looks like to see a close-up of human hair cell stereocilia inside the ear. These detect mechanical movement in response to sound vibrations

    Split end of human hair
    Regular trimmings to your hair and good conditioner should help to prevent this unsightly picture of a split end of a human hair.

    Red blood cells
    They look like little cinnamon candies here, but they’re actually the most common type of blood cell in the human body – red blood cells (RBCs). These biconcave-shaped cells have the tall task of carrying oxygen to our entire body; in women there are about 4 to 5 million RBCs per microliter (cubic millimeter) of blood and about 5 to 6 million in men. People who live at higher altitudes have even more RBCs because of the low oxygen levels in their environment.

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    Kembar siam ini terbahagi kepada banyakjenis. Orang-orang Greek menggunakan perkataan pagos, bermakna tempatdi mana mereka bercantum.

    *Craniopagus: Percantuman pada kepala sahaja, hampir dua peratus daripada keseluruhan kembar siam.

    *Pygopagus: Percantuman pada bahagian punggung, ia meliputi hampir 19 peratus daripada keseluruhan kembar siam.

    *Thoracopagus: Percantuman pada dada,ia merupakan jenis yang paling kerap ditemui dengan anggaran sebanyak35 peratus. Ia biasanya melibatkan perkongsian jantung.

    *Cephalopagus: Percantuman padabahagian atas tubuh di mana wajah kedua-dua bertentangan pada kepalayang bercantum. Kes-kes seumpama ini jarang berlaku. Ada kalanya, iamelibatkan perkongsian jantung.

    *Parapagus: Percantuman pada bahagianbawah tubuh. Kes-kes seumpama ini melibatkan lima peratus kembar siam.Ada kalanya kembar siam ini terpaksa berkongsi jantung.

    *Ischopagus: Percantuman pada separuh bahagian bawah tubuh. Dianggarkan enam peratus kembar siam daripada jenis ini ditemui.

    *Omphalopagus: Percantuman pada bahagian depan tengah tubuh. Hampir 30 peratus kes-kes kembar siam seumpama ini ditemui.

    *Kembar parasit: Kembar siam tidaksimetri di mana salah satu kembarnya bersaiz kecil, tidak terbentukdengan sempurna dan terpaksa bergantung kepada kembarnya.

    *Fetus in fetu: Keadaan di mana janin yang tidak terbentuk dengan sempurna ini terkandung dalam tubuh kembarnya.
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  8. Hubungan Antara Dinding Sel dan Buah

    Netsains.Com – Dalam proses pemasakan buah terdapat yang namanya softening fruit danripening fruit, iaitu salah satu proses dalam pelunakan buah. Kita semua tahu bahawa jika buah mengalami pemasakan, akan mengalami pelunakan juga.Ternyata proses pemasakan atau pelunakan ini berhubungan dengandinding sel yang terdapat dalam sel buah-buahan, yang dimana komposisidinding sel adalah sebagian besar polisakarida. Sekadar informasi,bahawa dinding sel sifatnya kuat, sehingga untuk memudahkan dalampelunakan diperlukan enzim yang berperan dalam hidrolisis. Enzimtersebut adalah hydrolase. Berikut adalah beberapa contoh hydrolase :
    • Polygalacturonase (PG) : merupakan enzim yangmendeterminasikan degradasi pektin dan berpengaruh pada jaringanpelunakan. Yang dihidrolisis di sini adalah galakturonide. Enzim iniditemukan pada buah, kerana ini merupakan spesifik enzim pada prosesripening fruit. Jumlahnya melimpah dalam buah, akan tetap setiapspesies akan berbeza. Gen yang berhubungan dengan enzim ini adalahMPG1, 2, 3. Baru-baru ini dikembangkan untuk pembuatan tanamantransgenik pada tomat, melon, dll.
    • α -Arabinosidase : enzim ini berkontribusi dalam modifikasi dinding sel selama ripening dan softening. Telah diidentifikasi bahwa pada sebahagian besar buah, terjadi kehilanganarabinosyl yang di situ sebagian besar komposisinya adalah pektin.Sebenarnya gen yang berperanan dalam enzim ini masih belum diketahui. α-Arabinosidase merupakan salah satu hydrolase yang membongkar pektinseperti pada PME (pectinmethylesterase) dan PAE (pectin acetylesterase).
    • β-Galactosidase : Enzim ini bekerja pada saat ripening fruit di dinding sel. Bahagian yang mengalami perubahan adalahhilangnya residu galactosyl pada polimer dinding sel. Gen yang berperananadalah TBG1, mengkode N-terminal amino acid sequence yang dipurifikasiβ-galactosidase II. Ada pula TBG4 (pTomβgal4) yang peranannya tidak samadengan TBG1, yaitu menghubungkan N-terminal sequence untuk isoformβ-galactosidase II
    • α-Galactosidase : enzim tersebut dapat dibagimenjadi grup, iaitu asid dan bes, bergantung dari respon pH. Padabentuk asid, berperanan dalam biji dan germinasi. Gen yang berperanan padatanaman masih belum diketahui. Sedangkan pada yeast, gen MEL1 pada Saccharomyces cerevisiae berhasil diamplifikasi. Gen tersebut berpengaruh pada degradasiraffinose. Raffinose merupakan indigestible trisaccharide yang terdapatpada buah dan sayuran.
    Selain enzim hydrolase di atas, ada gen yang berperanan juga dalam proses ripening fruit dan softening fruit, iaitu Expansin.Gen ini berperan merosak ikatan hidrogen pada polimer dinding sel.Telah diobservasi pada meristem tomat, expanding tissues, ripeningfruit.
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